ALTERNATIVES TO LAYING HENS BREEDING
IN PEASANT HOUSEHOLDS
Leonard Constantin STAFIE
The Professional Association of Poultry Breeders in Iasi County
If we consider that the most research studies and debates are directed to big exploitations and producers in poultry industry (both eggs and meat production), who have the financial possibilities to employ specialists and who have a wide variety of poultry tools and equipments, then we may say that the middle and small producers are kind of deprived of accessing high technologies in this field. Lack of money, the economical incapacity to contract long-term credits, as well as the internal instability on our markets, are the main category of reasons which cause the lower investments in these type of farms, no matter of production direction. That’s why I’ve considered extremely necessary to study and to write articles and papers about improving the specific works in poultry farms, about a minimum level of technology, machinery and equipments, presenting in the same time some offers for inputs and biological sources.
We are two years after Romania joins the European Union and the peasant households is the same. If we refer to populations of birds in these “farms” to discuss effective up to 100 head, low productive birds, lack of application of sanitary veterinary rules, lack of technology and a feeding defect. Under these conditions, and negative economic profitability of these farms is reflected directly in the living standard of “farmers”. As a possible improvement of farm households, especially given that no financial resources for development of large farms, the first step to be done is to make upwards of existing farm with a minimum investment.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
This study was held in several householdings in Iasi county, in different villages, under financial limitations, but where the peasants were intending to improve and make more profitable the existing laying hens’ breeding system.
The researched was relied on some minimum but essential measures:
- actual birds specialized on a specific production (eggs in our case);
- minimum number of 300 head;
- compliance with a minimum of technical operating and maintenance;
- compliance with minimum health requirements.
Minimum standards of maintenance and operation of laying hens are governed by Rule of 28/11/2001 Published in the Official Gazette, Part I no. 113 of 12/02/2002 and the Council Directive 1999/74/EC of 19 July 1999 laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens. Provisions of these rules shall not apply to holdings with fewer than 350 laying hens, farms growing youth replacement for laying hens.
By analytic method of efficiency calculating and based on the zootehnic patterns in this study, I analysed the available materials in every household, observing, identifing and adjusting them to breeding systems that I determined and I sdecided to be the best solution for that medium or small farm. All the steps I made together with these breeders/peasants were relied on the existing rules and reglementations for laying hens rising and wellness.
The results and economic values for efficiency were determined by some formulas and efficiency index from specialized scientific papers.